عنوان مقاله [English]
Cities cannot be recognized only by its past status and not only from the current situation. Not only the shape of the city, but even its meaning has changed over time and we cannot extend the situation of a periods of eras to others. To properly understand the city we have to examine the different layers of effective aspects on city in each period. One of the most important features that give a clear image from the city behavior to urban managers or used as an urban planning guidelines for planners, is a systematic recognition of the city history and background and a clear understanding of its physical, natural, historical, social, political and economic changes. If we accept this, then providing a specific pattern and trajectory that explain the evolution of a city and the process of change is becoming more and more important. Amol city is located between the Alborz mountain and Caspian Sea in north of Iran. It is invaded into the eastern and western parts by the river Haraz. The old fabric of the city has been the core of city in term of historical background and urban structure. Amol city has been considered for centuries with its historical background and its importance in terms of fabric, functional and natural changes. This city has played a significant role as a strategic human settlement in north of Iran during several periods. In the not too distance past Amol city has a coherent shape and preserved its authenticity and spaces such as Bazaar, the building around the Haraz river, the creek of Shahrrood, the holy shrines, etc have covered all over the city. But with constructing of the first streets the integrity of Bazaar, residential fabrics and neighborhoods and creek Shahrrood which was the most important natural axis of the city went to disrupt.This research seeks to investigate the pattern and trajectory of Amol city that is one of the most important historical cities in north of Iran and some historians consider it dating to the Iron Age. It is worth mentioning that this city is the first Shiite government base and there are many historical monuments in the city.
In this research at first, the historical courses of Amol and its changes at these eras are discussed, which included the pre-Islamic periods, after Islam, the Safavid governments, the Afsharite government, the Qajar and contemporary and recent times. After that the current structure of the city and its districts has been analyzed and then the urban development plans that have been prepared for the city in recent years have been evaluated. In the next step, the current state of the city context is analyzed and finally the urban plan considered for the historical context of the city and its planning and design processes are carefully explained. Finally, based on the findings of the studies, the course of the historical developments of the city has been drawn based on the Bemont diagram in different periods, showing its high and low points. The type of this research is a descriptive-analytical. The data is collected by studying historical documents and the writings of reliable historians and while conducting a field survey of the historic area of the city and studying its current urban development plans, a qualitative analysis of these data has been done.The results of the city growth and decline and comparison between the features of the old and new Amol are presented at the end. According to the historical documents, Amol city was the capital of Mazandaran at least from the Sassanid period to the Mongol period and was the official capital of Iran in three dynasties and during the Safavid, Alawi, Qajar, Fereydun, and Rostam dynasties, Marashi rule, and the Zandiyeh period, it experienced a good period or the golden age of Islam, and during the Ilkhanid, Seljuq, Ghaznavid, and Afshar periods, it passed through a bad period. According to the results of the research, natural and human factors apart from political factors were involved in the choice of Amol city, which distinguishes it from other cities of the province. The most important of these factors are: natural factors, defense factors, economic factors and communication factors. According to the information of the Bemont diagram, interventions and urban plans in recent years have tried to keep the physical monuments of the city stable, especially during the Sassanid period, which was the era of the city's evolution, and during the Safavid period, which, according to historical documents, was the era of the city's prosperity, which includes the Mir Bozor Mausoleum and It is related to the market order. Also, considering the historical role which was achieved From Bemont diagram, Solutions have been presented to maintain identity-performance links between historical periods of the city and its current and future development plans.