عنوان مقاله [English]
In the history of post-Islamic Iran, the Safavid era is considered a turning point regarding critical political developments. During the Safavid era, the economic boom provided a suitable platform for promoting Iranian Islamic culture. This issue made Iranian Islamic art, especially the architecture and urbanism of this period, different from other periods. Studying historical texts and books of geographers and travelers, as a unique form of remaining sources, is highly recommended in studying Iranian architecture and urban planning. Following the crisis of insufficient resources on the characteristics of ancient Islamic cities on the one hand and the limited scope of archaeological studies, on the other hand, the study and research in the books of travelers and travelogue writers are crucially necessary. The urban planning system of the Safavid period was able to plan and design the appropriate model of the Iranian Islamic city in this period of the country's history based on the ancient tradition of Iranian urban planning concepts and benefiting from the experiences of the civilized countries of that period. The urban planning system of the Safavid period was able to plan and design the appropriate model of the Iranian Islamic city in this period of the country's history based on the ancient tradition of Iranian urban planning concepts benefiting from the experiences of the civilized countries of that period. One of the remaining historical documents of the Safavid cities is the unique map drawn by Adam Olearius in his travelogue. Adam Olearius's travelogue is a reliable source that provides researchers with extensive scientific information about Islamic city formation, architecture, and physical structure. Examining this map can reveal the structure of the cities of this period from different dimensions. Olearius, more than other researchers, has considered the urban planning system of the Safavid period from an urban planning point of view. His map and travelogue are one of the resources that we can cite to draw a mental image of the city in the Safavid period. Olearius (2006) believes that Safavid idealism manifests itself in the city gardens.
The main objective of this research was to express the basis of the formation of the structural system of architecture and urban planning in the Safavid period and to understand this structure using historical texts and maps of this period. Moreover, the partial objective was to investigate the historical developments and the physical structure of the important cities of Iran in the travelogue of Olearius to reach the main objective of the research. So the question was, what was the structural system of Iranian cities in the Safavid period? Furthermore, how has the structural system of cities appeared in each city's architecture and urban planning? Looking at Iranian cities of the Safavid period, it is evident that the structural system was based on specific physical and natural principles and that political, cultural, and social factors were involved. It is important to examine the essence of the Islamic city in the context of the state of the urban community and the urban body. In order to carry out this research, the first step after determining the limits of the problem was to collect information (Data collection) from documentary sources and documents. After data collection, the interpretation of the obtained information has been presented. Since data collection is based on textual analysis by examining and referring to evidence and documents, if historical information is collected from first-hand sources, it requires a preliminary analysis of the prepared documents. This research is descriptive and analytical in terms of the type and nature of the study. In terms of temporal territory, it is related to the Safavid period. Regarding spatial territory, the cities of Ardabil, Qom, Kashan, Saveh, and Isfahan are the platforms for displaying the mental ideas of the urban planning system. Also, regarding the nature of the data, this research is qualitative and relies on thinking, reasoning, and rational analysis. Therefore, according to the written documents and the main objective, this research relies upon Adam Olearius's maps of the Safavid era and the Safavid era's urban planning system. The findings of this study, based on the travelogue of Olearius, indicate that the emergence of meaningful order and generality in the cities of the Safavid period is influenced by the geometrical system and physical organization. Shaping the whole structure of the city emphasizes concepts such as; joint spaces, directions, axes, hierarchy, valuing, order, and dignity of spatial determination and interconnection, and the emergence of meaningful order and totality in the cities of the Safavid period is influenced by the geometric system and physical organization.