مقایسه اثربخشی آموزش مجازی و آموزش حضوری بر یادگیری دانشجویان در درس طراحی معماری (مطالعه موردی : دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی دانشگاه سوره)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده معماری دانشگاه ایوان کی، سمنان، ایران.

2 استاد مدعو، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه سوره، تهران، ایران

10.22034/rau.2023.1996043.1037

چکیده

طراحی‌معماری یکی از مهم‌ترین مباحث آموزش‌معماری بشمار می‌آید. در اپیدمی کرونا، با پیشرفت روزافزون فناوری و امکانات، آموزش‌مجازی برای پاسخگویی به تغییرات و چالش‌های آموزش‌عالی رواج یافت. اهمیت و حساسیت روش‌ آموزش طراحی‌معماری نسبت به دیگر تخصص‌ها در این است که بدلیل نیاز به ارتباط موثر استاد و دانشجو، نمی‌توان به سادگی به انتقال دانش، مهارت‌ها و تجربیات اقدام کرد. در این‌راستا بررسی اثربخشی روش‌های آموزش‌مجازی و آموزش‌حضوری، اهمیت می‌یابد. این پژوهش از لحاظ هدف و نوع، کاربردی توسعه‌ای بوده و نحوه‌ی جمع‌آوری داده‌ها، پیمایشی است. در این پژوهش سعی شده است با روشی تحلیلی و توصیفی به صورت تلفیقی، به واکاوی کیفیت یادگیری درس طراحی معماری دانشجویان در دو شیوه آموزش پرداخته شود. جامعه‌‌آماری این پژوهش، دانشجویان کارشناسی‌ناپیوسته دانشگاه سوره می‌باشند. نخست 14 مولفه موثر بر یادگیری در درس طراحی معماری، از طریق بررسی مدارس و دانشگاه‌های معتبر معماری در سطح ملی و بین‌المللی شناسایی و دسته‌بندی شد. سپس در پرسشنامه‌ای سازماندهی شده و باتوجه به حجم نمونه، میان 80 نفر از دانشجویان توزیع گردید. از این رو امکان مقایسه‌ی دو روش (مجازی_حضوری) فراهم آمد. در ادامه پرسشنامه‌ی دوم با 20 سوال میان 21 نفر متشکل از اعضای هیئت علمی و اساتید دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی دانشگاه سوره توزیع شد. هدف از پرسشنامه دوم تدقیق معیارهای پژوهش در نظر گرفته شد. بنظر می‌رسد نتایج بدست آمده می‌تواند برای محیط‌های یادگیری درس طراحی‌معماری سودمند باشد. بر مبنای این پژوهش، میزان اثرگذاری کاربردی در آموزش حضوری و آتلیه محور درس طراحی معماری به مراتب بیشتر از دروس عملی استنباط شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative analysis of the virtual and on-campus training effectiveness on student’s learning in Design courses (Case study: Faculty of Architecture and Urbanization Soore University)

نویسندگان [English]

  • anahita samavat 1
  • Morteza Ismaeili 2
1 M.A in architecture,Faculty of Architecture, Eyvanekey University, Semnan, Iran.
2 Visiting professor, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Sooreh University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Architectural design is considered one of the most important topics in the field of architectural education, because we are in an era where, due to the ever-increasing progress of technology, many diverse issues, possibilities, and inventions have been raised in the field of training. During the coronavirus epidemic situation, we have seen the increasing use of virtual training in learning and teaching to respond to the changes and challenges of higher education. The concept of education and the process of teaching and learning has changed due to the pandemic conditions of the corona virus in recent years, and educational models have also undergone modifications and changes.The meaning of architectural design is the creative production of shape schemes that can be converted into man-made space. Teaching architectural design is a challenging matter that depends on many variables. Since the formation of a designer's personality and the learning of design skills are related to this category, it is highly sensitive and it is necessary to pay attention and study the architectural education process in architecture schools. On the other hand, architectural design cannot be considered a computational and mathematical and completely systematic act. Design is simultaneously mixed with theory and research, and the knowledge of architectural design is formed between the two currents of rationalism and empiricism, therefore, it pays attention to both sides of subjective and objective issues. At the same time, the importance and sensitivity of architectural design training methods toward other specializations are that it is not possible to have simply knowledge and skills transfer. In this regard, the category that should be paid more attention to is; Evaluating the effectiveness of virtual and on-campus training methods. This proposition becomes more important in experts' knowledge such as architecture, which has lost effective communication between professors and students with educational facilities. What should be given serious attention in teaching architectural design and its process is providing the necessary conditions to understand the quality of life that is supposed to happen in the architecture in question. The more the student understands this quality, the more his ability to get closer to the plan increases. In terms of purpose and type, this research is developmental and practical. In terms of the methods of data collection, it is surveying. In this research, we are trying to analyze the learning quality of students' architectural design courses in virtual and on-campus training with a combinatorial procedure of analytical and descriptive methods. The statistical population of this research is undergraduate students of discontinuous baccalaureate at Soore architecture and urbanization university. On this subject, fourteen effective components which affect learning in architectural design courses were identified and categorized through the investigations on architecture schools and universities at the national and international levels. Then these parameters were organized in a questionnaire and distributed among 80 students. Therefore, it was possible to compare two methods (virtual training and on-campus training). Then, the second questionnaire with 20 questions was distributed among 21 people consisting of faculty members and professors of Soore architecture and urbanization university. The purpose of the second questionnaire was to verify the research findings. It seems that the results can be beneficial for the learning environments of studio-based architecture design courses in general. This research states that the effectiveness of virtual training and on-campus training in practical courses are different from each other and this effect is more practical in studio-based architectural design courses. By analyzing the students' questionnaire and taking into account the clarification of the criteria from the point of view of the professors and faculty members of the Sourah University Faculty of Architecture in the second questionnaire, the impression was obtained that:
1. In the first category, which was related to students, the criteria of visual comprehension, valuation, sketches, technical drawing, model making, group work and understanding of concepts in face-to-face education have been most effective on students' learning compared to the virtual education of architectural design course. Also, in other cases that include presentation, ideation and learning, students and professors unanimously believe that both face-to-face and virtual training methods have been effective on learning.
2. In the second category, which was related to the learning environment, the criterion of proficiency perceptions resulting from the physical presence and sense of belonging to the educational atmosphere of the architectural studio environment is more effective and leads to the growth of students' social interactions with each other in group work during the semester. Also, in another criterion that includes concentration in terms of space and time, the consensus of students and professors reaches the conclusion that the factor of concentration has been effective in both face-to-face and virtual education methods.
3. In the third category, which was related to professors, the criterion of individual and collective correction has been more effective in face-to-face and studio-oriented teaching methods of design lessons. The criterion of theoretical foundations was found to be effective in both face-to-face and virtual teaching methods.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Architecture education
  • education effectiveness
  • virtual education
  • face-to-face education
  • architectural design course