عنوان مقاله [English]
Current buildings are not able to provide comfort and convenience for their residents. With progress and development in the field of materials and products as well as construction methods, it is necessary to move towards buildings with higher efficiency and greater economic efficiency. The use of smart materials that react according to changes and environmental conditions will have a significant effect on increasing the useful life of the building and creating comfort for the residents. This research has identified smart materials as one of the new types of materials and investigated its effects in creating comfort for residents. Future buildings should have the ability to increase efficiency, increase security and prevent energy wastage by using new technologies and creating a healthier environment. Despite the existing problems in the field of urban planning and architecture and the energy crisis that the world is facing today, it is necessary to pay more attention to new technologies and their role in optimizing energy consumption in buildings. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to identify the types of new materials, classify the types of smart materials and investigate their application in architecture, and also to investigate the effect of the types of smart materials used in architecture on the comfort of the residents, which forms the secondary goal of this research. to give In order to achieve these goals, the following questions are raised: - What are the types of new materials? - How many categories are smart materials divided into? - What is the application of smart materials in architecture? - What is the effect of each of the smart materials used in architecture on the comfort of the residents? The current research is a type of qualitative research that was carried out with a descriptive and analytical method. The information was collected in the form of a documentary library and after reviewing the articles and reliable sources, Sandelowski and Barsur's method was used for qualitative analysis, which is a structured model in the metacomposite method, and based on that, the theoretical framework of the research was presented.As an explanation, it should be acknowledged that at the beginning, the intention is to address the place and use of new materials, especially smart materials, and after examining the use of these materials in architecture and interior design, its connection with creating comfort and convenience for the residents. be investigated, which is mentioned in the results and discussion section in the conceptual model. With the investigations carried out on the characteristics of smart materials, it can be acknowledged that these materials are able to reversibly change their appearance according to the changes in the environment and human needs, and in addition to reducing damage. Environmental factors increase security, comfort and create well-being for the residents of a building. The findings show that people today live in a society that needs more security and comfort every day compared to the previous day, and a significant part of this need is summarized in the form of construction. Construction means applying a principled architecture in the world. Today, new materials have a significant contribution to the quality of construction, energy saving and biological protection. Among the new materials, we can mention recycled materials, biodegradable materials, bio-materials, immutable materials, smart materials, hybrid materials, materials with a fossil structure, and nano materials, among which smart materials are more than other materials of interest to architects and Engineers have been placed. Smart materials react appropriately to environmental events in a reversible manner. Smart materials are divided into two categories: changing properties and changing energy. The types of smart materials that change characteristics are: Color changing materials, which are used in architecture, including types of color changing, matting, and state changing glass. The application of deformable materials in architecture is in floor heating systems and microcapsules. Alloy materials with shape memory that are used in self-healing concrete architecture. The types of smart energy-changing materials are: Photovoltaic materials, which are used in the architecture of solar water heaters. Light emitting materials that are used in photoluminescence and electroluminescence architecture. Despite the major differences, such materials have a single characteristic and that is the effective response to changes in the surrounding environment. They are able to create a positive change in architecture, construction and way of life and respond to the different needs of users, along with positive features such as reducing building costs, preventing energy loss, controlling vision, changing transparency and changing color. Increase the variety and quality of the space. In fact, the technology of smart buildings works on the basis of giving importance to the users and meeting their needs.