واکاوی راهکارهای ارتقای سلامت و رفاه در طراحی مسکن از طریق تجربۀ مستقیم عناصر معماری بیوفیلیک

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه معماری، موسسه آموزش عالی فردوس، مشهد، ایران.

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد معماری داخلی، موسسه آموزش عالی فردوس، مشهد، ایران.

10.22034/rau.2023.1999519.1036

چکیده

امروزه صنعتی‌شدن، زندگی آپارتمانی و در نتیجه بیماری‌های روحی و روانی، جوامع بشری را در معرض بحران قرار ‌داده ‌است. محققین و دانشمندان راه‌حل‌های بسیاری در حوزه سلامت معرفی کرده‌اند، یکی از این راه‌حل‌ها، تحریک حواس انسان از طریق مؤلفه‌های معماری بیوفیلیک است که در نهایت موجب سلامت جسمی، روانی و اجتماعی افراد خواهد شد. هدف پژوهش حاضر، واکاوی مؤلفه‌های معماری بیوفیلیک در طراحی واحد مسکونی و بررسی نحوۀ تأثیر آن بر سلامت انسان در پنج نمونه موردی موفق است که در انتها راهکارهایی جهت برجسته‌تر شدن نتایج مثبت این معماری ارائه می‌گردد. برای دستیابی به اهداف کاربردی پژوهش، از روش ترکیبی (کیفی - کمی) استفاده شده است. در روند پژوهش، ابتدا از طریق مطالعات کتابخانه‌ای - اسنادی، مؤلفه‌های مربوط به بیوفیلیک که شامل سه دسته تجربة مستقیم از طبیعت، تجربة غیرمستقیم از طبیعت و تجربه از فضا و مکان است، استخراج‌ شد و سپس بر اساس داده‌های به‌دست‌آمده از بخش کیفی، پرسش‌نامه‌ای محقق‌ساخته در اختیار متخصصین در زمینه معماری، روانشناسی، محیط‌زیست و سلامت قرار گرفت. نتایج پرسش‌نامة متخصصین در نرم‌افزار SPSS نشان داد که میزان تأثیرگذاری مؤلفه‌های تجربة مستقیم، از سایر مؤلفه‌ها بیشتر بوده است. در گام سوم، بررسی مؤلفه‌ها در پنج نمونه موردی حاکی از آن است که نور خورشید، گیاه، دید و منظر، آب، هوا و مصالح طبیعی در بین همه نمونه‌ها مشترک بوده و موجب سلامت و رفاه ساکنین شده است. در گام آخر نیز، برای بهره‌گیری از شاخص‌های «تجربة مستقیم با طبیعت» در طراحی مسکن، راهکارهایی ارائه شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analyzing ways to improve health and well-being in the design of housing through the direct experience of biophilic architectural elements

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyedeh Maryam Mojtabavi 1
  • Fahime Tafakkori 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, Ferdows Institute of Higher Education, Mashhad, Iran.
2 Master student of Interior Architecture, Ferdows Institute of Higher Education, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Among the consequences of the industrial revolution in the modern era, we can mention the increase in apartment living, the decrease in connection with nature, the soullessness of houses, and the increase in diseases such as depression among residents. Since man is genetically and biologically dependent on nature and the natural tendency of man has been focused on nature and natural processes from the beginning, paying attention or not paying attention to this natural sense creates positive and negative feelings in it and has an effect on the soul and body. Lays. Researchers and scientists have introduced many solutions in the field of health and well-being, one of these solutions is the stimulation of human senses through biophilic architectural components, which will ultimately lead to physical, mental and social health of people. The aim of the current research is to analyze the direct components of biophilic architecture in the design of a residential unit and examine how it affects human health through the five senses, and at the end, solutions are also provided to highlight the positive results of this architecture. In order to achieve the goals, the following questions are raised: - Through what components in architecture can the biophilic approach be achieved? - What senses do the direct components of biophilic architecture stimulate? - How do biophilic elements cause human health and well-being? - What solutions are suggested for the use of direct biophilic components in the interior design of housing? A mixed method (qualitative-quantitative) was used to conduct the present research. In the research process, first through library-documentary studies, biophilic components was extracted and then based on the data obtained from the qualitative section, a researcher-made questionnaire was given to 30 people who are experts in the fields of architecture, psychology, environment and health. The results of the experts' questionnaire in SPSS 26 software showed that the influence of the components of direct experience was more than the other components, that the eight indicators of sunlight, plants, view and landscape, water, air, natural materials, fire and animals respectively had the highest average influence. assigned to themselves In the third step, the examination of the components in four case samples indicates that sunlight, plants, view and scenery, water, air and natural materials are common among all samples and have contributed to the health and well-being of the residents. In sample one, the indicators of sunlight, view and landscape, water and natural materials have a strong presence and the most involvement of the senses in this sample is related to the sense of sight. In the second example, the indicators of sunlight, sight and landscape, plants and natural materials have had a tremendous impact on the conflict of the sense of sight, hearing and smell. In sample three, the senses of sight, hearing and smell are stimulated by the indicators of sunlight, plants, air, sight and scenery and natural materials. In example 4, the most involvement of the senses is related to the sense of sight, which is caused by the presence of the indicators of sunlight, sight and landscape, water, fire, and natural materials. In the last example, the indicators of sunlight, sight and landscape, plants, air, natural materials have led to the conflict of the senses of sight, smell and hearing. Finally, the findings indicate that the indicators of light, visibility and landscape, plants and natural materials have been taken into consideration in the study samples; Therefore, according to the results of previous studies, it can be acknowledged that the mentioned indicators improve the health and well-being of the residents by stimulating the five senses. In the last step, in order to take advantage of the indicators of "direct experience with nature" in housing design, according to the theoretical framework related to biophilic architecture and inferential analyzes derived from the examination of samples, the solutions of using biophilic architecture through direct experience with nature through the five senses to reach It is provided for the health and well-being of residents. In the end, considering that "indirect experience with nature" and "experience of space and place" are also other components of biophilic architecture and lead to people's health and well-being, it is recommended that researchers for future research investigate the effect of this Two components deal with people's health and prioritizing their indicators.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • housing
  • biophilic
  • senses
  • health and well-being
  • direct experience of nature