عنوان مقاله [English]
Knowing and understanding the philosophical and allegorical meaning of artistic and architectural elements is undeniably critical. Chalipa is one of these elements. This ancient motif and the fundamental concepts of Iranian ontology have consistently and repeatedly played a role in art and architecture for over seven thousand years as a symbolic element in reflecting such concepts. Further, Islamic horizontality is considered a guiding principle in realizing Islamic architectural works as a principle derived from the monotheistic worldview and a belief in the unity of being in the universe. This paper discusses the pivotal role of light from the viewpoint of epistemology and ontology in Iranian mysticism and wisdom to perceive the ontology language of Chalipa as a symbol of light in Iranian thinking and culture. Afterward, it will be viewed analytically and comparatively through the principle of horizontality in terms of form and meaning.
The theory of doubt in existence, or unity in multiplicity and multiplicity in unity, based on light, as a single and universal truth that has different degrees of perfection and imperfection, has been presented as one of the fundamental ontological theories of the Iranian people. This theory, which is passed down from ancient times, is brought up again at around 5th century AH, first in the guise of Tariqa and then through Sufi commentators and Islamic scholars. In this way, it is mixed with Quran's plethora of themes and the Sunnah and life of the Messenger of God and his family, together with intuitive perceptions and by using the language of philosophy and theology, becoming a stable and systematic intellectual tradition, and opening yet another chapter in Islamic wisdom and knowledge. This tradition of thought defines light as being equal to existence, meaning that light and existence form a single truth, and do not fundamentally differ from each other, except in the realm of ideas. This finds a decisive explanation in the mystical and philosophical circles, and therefore, the philosophical system of illumination and creation of light is transformed into the story of the creation of existential worlds. We are talking about the highest order of existence, which is infinite in terms of duration, intensity and number. Coinciding with this era, i.e. from the 4th-5th century AH, the principle of Islamic Horizontalism, originating from a unified worldview and based on the unity of existence, catalyzes the creation of Islamic works of art and architecture. In the process of realizing transcendental concepts, the Principle of Horizontalism acts as a structural guide, bringing the deep mystical meanings of existential unity onto the level of appearances as a non-hierarchical multi-scale model, characterized by a companionship, directionlessness, multiplicity and infinity infused with abstract simplicity. In ancient Iranian wisdom, the Chalipa is the only visual representation of the originary light, the "luminous gift" of existence. Thus, in the Iranian tradition, Chalipa acts as a precious and mysterious motif, which is the manifestation of the transcendental origin of the universe. In the continuation of the intellectual and artistic life of Iranians, Chalipa plays a critical role, acting in both fields of wisdom and art for more than seven thousand years, transforming the highest truths hidden in the depths of knowledge to the surfaces of comprehensible art. This research shows that from the semantics point of view, the Chalipa effectively expresses the fundamental concepts of the principle of Islamic Horizontalism and from a formal point of view, the Chalipa is a symbolic form that resists the limitations of perspectival hierarchy. The Chalipa consists of two arms of the same size, which are perpendicular to each other at their central point of intersection. The formal configuration of the Chalipa does not show preference for a particular point of view or direction and as a result, it can be viewed from any direction. Chalipa has thrived in Islamic art and architecture throughout the ages, due to its ability to be repeated and multiplied in various geometric patterns without creating perspectival or conceptual hierarchy or limitations. It is therefore widely used in shaping architectural spaces and ornamentations. Simultaneously simple and mysterious, the Chalipa demonstrates its special efficiency in responding to the needs of the viewers throughout the evolution and development of its conceptual history. Due to its unique geometry, the Chalipa has been widely used in combination with other symbols and geometries in order to create new artistic expressions based on the viewer's imagination and the transcendental definition of light. Therefore, Chalipa possesses both the conceptual and formal features proposed in the principle of Islamic Horizontalism.