عنوان مقاله [English]
In different periods of history, human societies have witnessed religious buildings as human cultural relics, which have remained objectively. This heritage, while being respectable for every nation and the followers of every religion, through the continuation and repetition of traditions and beliefs, are instructive and open the way for other nations to find the culture of that nation. The formation of the architectural body of these buildings is affected by several factors, the knowledge of which can help in the architectural design of contemporary identity-giving buildings. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate and analyze the architecture of Qajar period religious buildings in Mazandaran and Gilan, in order to understand the causes of the formation of the architecture of these two types of buildings, with physical differences that can be generalized to All the religious buildings of this region were studied.
The current research is descriptive and content analysis in nature. The method of collecting information is documentary and field, so that the most important tools for collection are library sources such as documents of the General Directorate of Cultural Heritage and field observation of the tombs of Mazandaran and the tombs of Gilan. is to identify and determine their general characteristics and design patterns. Statistical community, Qajar period ritual building in the northern region of the country; They include Bekaa Motbarakeh of Gilan Province and Saqanfarah of Mazandaran Province. The samples were selected and analyzed based on the architectural characteristics. The number of statistical population of historical monuments of Gilan and Saqanfar of Mazandaran is four each;These buildings include 4 Saqanfar Kijatakiyeh, Ledar, Firouzjah and Hamza-Kala-Shesh-Pol in Mazandaran and 4 mausoleums of Agha Sayyed Mohammad Dimeni, Chaharpadshah, Seyyed Musi Ibn Jaafar (AS) and Nasir Ali Kia Ibn Imam Musa Al Kazem (AS) in Gilan. Is. The required information has been collected in documentary and field form and described and analyzed in a comparative context. The findings of the research indicate that the climate and consequently the native architecture of the region is the most important factor shaping the architecture of these two types of buildings. In the selection, it has been tried to ensure that the buildings are standing and are chosen with architectural differences so that they can be generalized to all the religious buildings of this region in the Qajar period.
In this research, the architecture of Qajar period religious buildings in Mazandaran and Gilan, including four tombs and four saqanfar, was investigated and analyzed in order to find the causes of their formation from the perspective of architectural features. For this purpose, the influence of history, climate and ritual issues were investigated. In terms of historical period; The time frame of the creation of the paintings that were carved on the surface of the walls of the tombs of Gilan as well as the top of the wooden boards of the Saqanfars of Mazandaran, and the architecture of these two types of buildings were both during the Qajar period. A period whose architecture is derived from Western architecture on the one hand and ancient Iranian architecture on the other, this indicates the absence of a style with specific architectural features in the buildings of this period except for government buildings and palaces. ,
From the native point of view, the Saqanfars were built in the Mazandaran region and the tombs were built in the Gilan region, and in terms of examining the local architecture, in addition to the climatic conditions, the influence of customs, beliefs and beliefs specific to each region on the architecture of these two types It is obvious. So that the influence of religious and religious beliefs can be seen in the shrines and monuments that humans have built to perform religious duties. The harmony of the face, form and structure of the building in these areas with the customs and religious beliefs of the people of that area can be understood in these two types of buildings.
These types of buildings act as the identity card of the ethnicity and cultural identity of the people of that region, and sometimes in its formation, economic and social relations with the natural environment and cultural symbols, rituals and beliefs of the people of the region are reflected. According to the analysis and investigation of the main factors of the use of each of the architectural elements in these two buildings, it can be said that the structural differences of these two types of religious buildings are caused by the context in which these two types of buildings are built. and climate is the most important reason for the difference in the architecture of these two types of buildings, and religion is second in importance.